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Atmospheric pressure cold plasma has been shown capable of inactivating microorganisms within a few seconds, without altering the characteristics of the material to be sterilized (which can be either in solid, liquid and gaseous phase, and also in the case of artefacts of high historical value) and with the possibility to be adapted for the treatment of non-conventional geometries. Among the advantages of this technology compared to competitors (e.g. gamma rays, electron beams, ethylene oxide) there are the reduction of risks for the operators’ health, cost of installation and process management, treatment times and chemicals used; moreover, the interaction mechanisms between plasma and biological systems confer greater efficacy to the sterilization process, enabling the inactivation of biofilm and prions.