Plasma technology is widely used in the production of metal (e.g. Al, Fe, Si) and ceramic (e.g. Al2O3, SiO2, WC) nanoparticles, carbon-based (e.g. nanotubes, fullerenes, graphene) and innovative nanomaterials (core-shell nanostructures, nanoparticles with surface functionalizations). Unlike traditional processes of wet-chemistry, and ball-milling, plasma technology allows the production of particles with a diameter less than 100 nm at high production rates (> 100 g / h) from solid, liquid and gaseous phase precursors, ensuring high process flexibility and reuse of waste materials. The plasma technology can also be used to favour the dispersion of nanomaterials in resins and polymer solutions and produce metal matrix nanocomposite materials in a single-step process.